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Eye Disorder Index

Myopia (Nearsightedness)

Myopia, also known as nearsightedness, is inherited and is often discovered in childhood. Myopia is a refractive error, which results from a disorder rather than from disease. A refractive error means that the shape of your eye does not bend light correctly, resulting in a blurred image. Myopia often progesses throughout the teenage years, when the body is growing rapidly.

People with high myopia have a higher risk of detached retina, which can be repaired with surgery, and glaucoma. Symptoms * Blurred vision * Difficulty seeing distant objects The symptoms described above may not necessarily mean that you have myopia. However, if you experience one or more of these symptoms, contact your eye doctor for a complete exam..

Hyperopia (Farsightedness)

Definition Hyperopia, also known as farsightedness, is usually inherited. Children are often hyperopic which may lessen as an adult. Hyperopia is a refractive error, which results from a disorder rather than from disease. A refractive error means that the shape of your eye does not bend light correctly, resulting in a blurred image. Symptoms * Blurred vision * Difficulty seeing objects up close * Crossing of the eyes in children (Esotropia)

LASIK, Refractive Lens Exchange and Contact lenses are a few of the options available to correct farsightedness.


Asymmetric steepening of the cornea or natural lens causes light to be focused unevenly, which is the main optical problem in astigmatism. To individuals with uncorrected astigmatism, images may look blurry or shadowed. Astigmatism can accompany any form of refractive error and is very common.

Astigmatism can be corrected with glasses, contact lenses, corneal relaxing incisions, laser vision correction, and special implant lenses.


Presbyopia: The loss of the eye's ability to change focus to see near objects. The reasons for this loss of the power of accommodation are not yet fully known. It is conventionally said to be due to the lens becoming less elastic with time.

Presbyopia is associated with aging. It occurs in everyone. The first sign is often the need to hold reading material farther away. The lens of the eye and the muscle that surrounds it are like atomic clocks, slowly ticking with such precision that a person's age can be determined by measuring their ability to focus close up.

Children can normally focus on objects an inch or so (a few centimeters) from their eyes. They lose that ability as teenagers. By age 45 or so, when the eyes can focus no closer than a yard (a meter) or two away, almost everyone needs glasses to read a newspaper or thread a needle. The word "presbyopia" comes from the Greek for "elderly vision."


The following list provides a brief description of several common eye disorders. Consult your physician or an ophthalmologist for more information.

Age-Related Macular Degeneration is the breaking down, or degeneration, of the macula area of the retina of the eye.

Amblyopia is reduction or dimming of vision in an eye that appears to be normal.

Blepharitis is an inflammation of the edges of the eyelids involving hair follicles and glands that open onto the surface.

Chalazion is a small bump that develops on the upper or lower eyelid. It is caused by inflamed meibomian glands that produce the oil in tears.

Conjunctivitis, sometimes called pink eye, is an inflammation of the blood vessels in the conjunctiva, the membrane that covers the sclera and inside of the eyelids. Conjunctivitis may be caused by bacteria or viruses, making it very contagious.

Diabetic Retinopathy is a disorder of the retina resulting from changes in the eye blood vessels and found in some people who have diabetes.

Dry Eye occurs when there is not enough moisture in the eye, causing it to feel dry, hot, sandy, and gritty. Dry eye may be caused by low humidity, smoke, aging, certain diseases, and certain medications (i.e., antihistamines, decongestants).

Floaters appear as spots, dots, or lines and affect or interrupt vision. Floaters are usually caused by bits of debris in the vitreus humor.

Glaucoma is a disease that impairs the optic nerve when fluid and pressure build up in the eye and damage the optic nerve.

Hyperopia, or farsightedness, means a person has trouble seeing clearly up close.

Iritis is an inflammation of the iris of the eye.

Presbyopia is another type of farsightedness and is caused when the center of the eye lens hardens making it unable to accommodate near vision.

Retina Detachment is the separation of the retina from the back of the eye.

Retinitis Pigmentosa is actually the name given to a group of hereditary eye disorders, all of which involve the eye's retina, the light-sensitive nerve layer that lines the back of the eye, and all of which cause a gradual, yet progressive, loss or reduction in visual ability.

Strabismus is crossed eyes.

Stye is a noncontagious, bacterial infection of one of the sebaceous glands of the eyelid. A stye looks like a small, red bump either on the eyelid or on the edge of the eyelid.

Uveitis is a condition that occurs in the uvea, or the middle coat of the eye. Because the uvea contains the blood vessels that supply nutrients to the eye, any form of uveitis may be serious and may be a symptom for other serious conditions.